New Species from India

Every time we read about nature and wildlife in India, it is almost always depress­ing news about how ele­phants are being tor­tured and how the tiger pop­u­la­tion is dwin­dling to extinc­tion. How­ev­er, there has been a lot of good news too, which is most­ly ignored. It is extreme­ly unusu­al for new bio­log­i­cal species to be dis­cov­ered, and the num­ber of new dis­cov­er­ies from India in recent years is sim­ply astound­ing. Here is a sam­pling of some of these trea­sures.

Species_PeacockTarantula

Peacock Blue Tarantula

Out­look reports: The spec­tac­u­lar Pea­cock Taran­tu­la was named on the basis of a sin­gle spec­i­men obtained at Gooty (Andhra Pradesh) rail­way station’s tim­ber yard in 1899. Nat­u­ral­ists dogged­ly searched the area for the spi­der. About 102 years lat­er, some dis­tance from Gooty, they found the most beau­ti­ful spi­der in the world in a total­ly degrad­ed for­est. With­in five hours. While this re-dis­cov­ery went total­ly unno­ticed in India, it set the net­work of Euro­pean and Amer­i­can ani­mal deal­ers buzzing. With­in a year 12 spec­i­mens of the taran­tu­la were smug­gled out of the coun­try and the babies hit the pet trade the fol­low­ing year. In 2005 when I vis­it­ed an exot­ic pet expo in the Unit­ed States each baby was worth US $350, down from $1,000 in 2003.

Species_Lizard

Andaman Lizard

Yet anoth­er effort­less dis­cov­ery hap­pened at the field sta­tion of the Andaman and Nico­bar Islands Envi­ron­men­tal Team in 2004. Lizard researcher Shreyas Krish­nan heard a splash in the rapid­ly grow­ing pond out­side. A lizard it was, and one that nei­ther he nor any of the numer­ous vis­it­ing her­petol­o­gists had ever seen before. Shreyas had dis­cov­ered not only a species, but a whole new genus.

Species_Lbrw

Large-Billed Reed Warbler

The Large-billed Reed-war­bler is the world’s least known bird. A sin­gle bird was col­lect­ed in the Sut­lej Val­ley, Himachal Pradesh, India, in 1867, but many had ques­tioned whether it indeed rep­re­sent­ed a true species. A live spec­i­men was then trapped by Philip D. Round in March 2006 in Thai­land and it was con­firmed to be a new species.

This bird was sight­ed at Naren­dra­pur, 10 kms from Kolkata on 1st April 2007.

Species_Bugunliocichla

Bugun Liocichla

In Sep­tem­ber 2006, the Nation­al Geo­graph­ic report­ed that an ama­teur bird-watch­er who was an astronomer, found the first new bird species to be dis­cov­ered in India in over 50 years.

No spec­i­men was tak­en, because “we thought the bird was just too rare for one to be killed,” said Ramana Athreya, the bird’s dis­cov­er­er, in a state­ment.

Because the Bugun lio­ci­ch­la is so dis­tinc­tive and doesn’t appear to fear humans, experts say it must be extreme­ly rare or it would have been dis­cov­ered before now.

Species_SmallestFrog

Smallest Indian Land Vertebrate

A few days back, Sci­ence Dai­ly report­ed that India’s small­est land ver­te­brate, a 10-mil­lime­ter frog, has been dis­cov­ered from the West­ern Ghats of Ker­ala by Del­hi Uni­ver­si­ty Sys­tem­at­ics Biol­o­gist, S D Biju and his col­leagues.

Adult males are bare­ly 10 mm in length. In this pho­to­graph, the frog is placed on an Indi­an 5 rupee coin. Biju gave a new name for the frog, Nyctiba­tra­chus min­imus.

Species_Frog

New Frog Family

In 2003, Biju had dis­cov­ered a bright pur­ple, bloat­ed frog in the West­ern Ghats that was so unique it mer­it­ed the estab­lish­ment of not only a new species but also a new fam­i­ly.

This crea­ture evolved dur­ing the hey­day of the dinosaurs. Dubbed Nasik­a­ba­tra­chus sahya­dren­sis, it evolved about 130 mil­lion years ago, pri­or to the break up of India and the Sey­chelles around 65 mil­lion years ago.

Species_MacacaMonkey

Arunachal Macaque

As a well pop­u­lat­ed coun­try of over a bil­lion peo­ple, India seems an unlike­ly place to dis­cov­er a new pri­mate species. The last time in the world that researchers spot­ted a new macaque was in the Mentawai islands of Indone­sia in 1903.

Hence the sur­prise dis­cov­ery of this new mon­key species made head­lines over the world.

Maca­ca Mun­za­la, as it was named, grabbed the atten­tion of ecol­o­gists as it is one of the high­est-dwelling pri­mates in the world.

Species_LimblessLizard

Limbless Lizard

In May this year, an Indi­an zool­o­gist found a new species of limb­less lizard in a forest­ed area in Oris­sa.

Pre­lim­i­nary sci­en­tif­ic study reveals that the lizard belongs to the genus Sep­sophis,” said Sushil Kumar Dut­ta, who led a team of researchers from “Vasundhra,” a non-gov­ern­men­tal orga­ni­za­tion, and the North Oris­sa Uni­ver­si­ty.

While mod­ern snakes and lizards are derived from a com­mon evo­lu­tion­ary ances­tor, they belong today to two entire­ly sep­a­rate groups of ani­mals, or orders.

Species_Snake

Indian Egg-Eating Snake

Out­look reports: Anoth­er her­peto­log­i­cal break­through was the redis­cov­ery of the Indi­an Egg-Eat­ing Snake, a tooth­less spe­cial­ist. It was first found in Rang­pur (now in Bangladesh) in 1863. Sub­se­quent­ly it dis­ap­peared alto­geth­er. In 2003, a spec­i­men of the long lost Indi­an Egg-Eater turned up in Maha­rash­tra.

Here’s the Wikipedia entry for the Elachistodon west­er­man­ni, as it is called.

Species_Dinohead

New Dinosaur Species

Not a liv­ing species, but wor­thy of inclu­sion in this col­lec­tion, a new species of dinosaur was dis­cov­ered in 2003 along the Nar­ma­da riv­er in Gujarat.

It has been named Rajasaurus nar­maden­sis, or the regal rep­tile from Nar­ma­da. The age of the bones meant that Rajasaurus was a con­tem­po­rary of Tyran­nosaurus rex and there­fore one of the last species to live before the dinosaurs were wiped out.

(Cred­its: This was inspired by the Out­look arti­cle ref­er­enced in the post, from which I decid­ed to do fur­ther research. Pho­tographs are from the arti­cles linked to from the post)

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  • WOW.
    There is so much of Indi­an Wildlife to dis­cov­er,
    so short for one life time.
    Thanks a lot Mahen­dra.

  • cool
    just like been to a for­est on a trek

  • The bloat­ed, pur­ple frog reminds me of a Star Wars char­ac­ter.

    I didn’t know that sci­en­tists still take spec­i­mens by killing the ani­mal. At least the astronomer spared the bird.

    As for smug­gling the ani­mals out to be bred as pets.…how self­ish!

    Your research would make a won­der­ful book for chil­dren, the kind adults like to look at too. I learned so much by read­ing sci­ence books to my boys when they were young. Won­der­ful arti­cle, Mahen­dra.

  • Don’t show this post to She­faly. She will crush the spi­der. (ewwww…sends a chill down my spine).

    Vora­cious Blog Read­er

  • Mad­huri: Thank you! I think India’s cul­tur­al diver­si­ty is only rivalled by its bio­di­ver­si­ty! 🙂

    Prax: Thank you! Glad you had a nice trek!

    Cristine: I don’t think sci­en­tists take spec­i­mens by killing — they do by cap­tur­ing. In this case, they did show unusu­al sen­si­tiv­i­ty in not cap­tur­ing the bird! Isn’t it won­der­ful?

    Smug­gling to keep as pets is a less­er evil — at least they care for their pets the best they can. Smug­gling body parts after slaugh­ter­ing ani­mals to make medieval med­i­cines whose authen­tic­i­ty is sus­pect is a greater evil — that that’s what’s hap­pen­ing to India’s tigers!

    Thank you for your kind words. I think writ­ing for chil­dren requires spe­cial skills! The nice part about it is that adults too can learn so much from the sci­ence books for chil­dren. These days, there are a lot of children’s sci­ence books com­ing out and I’m very hap­py about that.

    VBR: 😀 Thanks for read­ing!

  • Thanks for the short les­son on zoology/anthropology 🙂 Loved it!

  • Har­sha: It is not often that I have the plea­sure of you com­ment­ing on my blog, so I’m very hap­py! 🙂

  • like our her­itage, we don’t val­ue our bio­di­ver­si­ty too.
    Excel­lent post.

  • I must tell you that this post did not appeal to me all that much, but visu­al­ly was the most impres­sive ever in your blog.
    Do I sound like an art crit­ic, leav­ing every­one con­fused as to whether he liked it or hat­ed it?
    🙂

  • Pre­rna: Thank you.

    Ram­bodoc: It means the post was okay, but with a lot of inter­est­ing pho­tographs! 🙂
    Your wit is once again leav­ing me speech­less, yes you do sound like an art crit­ic! 🙂

  • Pingback: The Secret of Life « Mariacristina()

  • wow i love the taran­tu­la!
    it seems so out of this world!!

  • care to trade links with my humor blog? check it out at http://jaysmoney.blogspot.com

  • Nice pics… this was a very colour­ful post 🙂

  • Jay: Thanks for vis­it­ing! Yes the taran­tu­la is quite an exot­ic one…

    Oemar: Thank you!

  • Hey

    thanks for bring­ing this to our notice.

  • Thank, arZan!

  • bendtherulz

    I would nev­er asso­ciate Taran­tu­la with India — so to find that we also have such rare col­ored one.…great !! Loved all the pics and text.
    (con­cern is that some­time these news actu­al­ly gets into wrong hands much often — so are these dis­cov­er­ies good for the ani­mals.…?? — I hope peo­ple real­ize that find­ing such rare sights in for­est is where its enjoyed best and leave at that.…!)

    I hope you also con­tin­ue this series and may be do sequel — on Flo­ra.

    *greedy* 🙂

  • Bendtherulz: Thanks so much! Isn’t the taran­tu­la amaz­ing?!

    This news goes into the wrong hands any­ways, they have their own means and sup­plies of infor­ma­tion. It is we sim­ple­tons who are usu­al­ly unaware of such things! 🙂

    Thanks for the encour­age­ment. Let me think about that sequel…

  • shame

    Your for men­tioned Pea­cock Taran­tu­la left india by per­mit only after did they cry foul.… They have since been bred so effi­cient­ly, there is no need for any more to be removed from the wild. It is a shame you do not men­tion that defor­esta­tion kills these won­der­full crea­tures dai­ly by the hun­dreds. It is a shame that they will only have a home in cap­tiv­i­ty in the future, It is easy to crit­i­cise and exag­ger­ate the trade in taran­tu­las espe­cial­ly the genus Peocilothera but habi­tat loss goes unmen­tioned as the trade in wood for fuel and fur­ni­ture, and land clear­ance, which in turn leads to ero­sion and loss of human life in land­slides dur­ing the mon­soon, seems not to mat­ter.

    Don’t get me wrong I do not con­done smug­gling, just get the facts right first.…

  • sir,
    thanks for the won­der­ful infor­ma­tion.
    Recent­ly it was noticed that the Ger­man doc­tor Clark­Mark Baum­garten came to Visakha of A.P.and col­lect­ed taran­tu­la with­out per­mis­sion.
    this was brought to light by local tvnews reporter.
    such cas­es of biopira­cy are vio­la­tion of The bio­log­i­cal diver­si­ty act 2002(India)

  • 5 min­utes ago, 5 min­utes before I found your web­site, I read that IUCN has placed the Pea­cock Blue Taran­tu­la on the crit­i­cal­ly endan­gered list–it’s on the crit­i­cal­ly endan­gered list & you’re talk­ing about good news & the this tarantula’s babies being in pet expo’s & you’re quot­ing prices—this is real­ly messed up

    life sacred or a com­mod­i­ty

    To me it’s sacred

  • Biotech Stu­dent

    Hel­lo,
    I chanced upon this blog quite acci­den­tal­ly- I was hunt­ing for some info on Species Intro­duc­tion and this was one of the links that google pro­vid­ed.
    But am quite pleased with what i learnt..
    Good work
    Keep it up!
    Bio­di­ver­si­ty con­ser­va­tion is the need of the hour!